[Proto-Ñyqy] Pronouns

Lucien Cartier-Tilet 7 months ago
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@ -884,21 +884,22 @@ reached on this point, most of them might be older innovations.
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-aywhtyt058j0
*** Names
*** Nouns
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Names-ztxhtyt058j0
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-World-Classes-Nouns-hu0ktba1zfj0
# - What are the distributional properties of nouns?
# - What are the structural properties of nouns?
# - What are the major formally distinct subcategories of nouns?
# - What is the basic structure of the noun word (for polysynthetic
# languages) and/or noun phrases (for more isolating languages)?
Names in Proto-Ñyqy generally refer to defined entities, such as
Nouns in Proto-Ñyqy generally refer to defined entities, such as
objects, people, concepts, or events. Regardless of their role during
locution, a noun bears no morphological information such as its
syntactic role or its number. However, nouns can associate with each
other and act as adjectives. More on that in
other and act as adjectives.
# More on that in
# §[[#Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Modifiers-Descriptive-Adjectives-pcpelau058j0]].
Noun phrases in Proto-Ñyqy are head-first, meaning the noun in noun
phrases come relatively early although the former is built around the
former and not exclusively after it. Noun phrases are mainly found as
@ -908,14 +909,16 @@ genitive and dative constructions.
The nouns could most likely take genitive pronouns, but how they
interacted exactly is yet unsure. The
**** Countables and Uncountables
**** Countables and Uncountables :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Names-Countables-and-Uncountables-sqyhtyt058j0
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-World-Classes-Nouns-Countables-and-Uncountables-t7dduha1zfj0
**** Proper Nouns
**** Proper Nouns :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Names-Proper-Nouns-0ozhtyt058j0
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-World-Classes-Nouns-Proper-Nouns-cczduha1zfj0
*** Pronouns and Anaphoric Clitics
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@ -927,15 +930,111 @@ interacted exactly is yet unsure. The
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Pronouns-and-Anaphoric-Clitics-Personal-Pronouns-cps4r0u058j0
It seems only three pronouns existed in Proto-Ñyqy, one for each of
the persons you would find in a typical language, as shown in
#+name: table:pronouns
#+caption: Proto-Ñyqy pronouns
| <l> | |
| / | < |
| Person | Pronoun |
| 1 | {{{recon(qy)}}} |
| 2 | {{{recon(bú)}}} |
| 3 | {{{recon(zø)}}} |
It appears Proto-Ñyqy pronouns did not have any morphological rule to
make them agree in number and due to the apparent lack of gender
neither did they agree with it. However, it is possible that at some
stage of the development of the language, Proto-Ñyqy began affixing
cardinal numbers in order to its pronouns up until the number “six”
{{{recon(ñy)}}} which would have marked a general plural. It is very much
possible all numbers up to {{{recon(ñy)}}} were used with pronouns, however
only remains of it as well as {{{recon(qi)}}} (/two/) for some dual or paucal,
and in the case of the Tiltinian family {{{recon(nø)}}} (/three/) was used for
trial and later on for paucal. No remains of {{{recon(gø)}}}, {{{recon(co)}}} or
any number higher than {{{recon(ñy)}}} is found in its daughter languages.
It is also unlikely {{{recon(mi)}}} (/one/) was ever used to mark the
singular, or at least its usage never persisted in its recorded
daughter languages as it cannot be reconstructed with our current
# The order in which these cardinal numbers are affixed to
# the pronoun depend on the numbers word order described in
# [[#Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Modifiers-Numerals-4gvelau058j0]].
- {{{recon(møgusqim qy ij)}}}
| møgusq | im | qy | ij |
| village | towards | 1sg | go |
Im going to the village
- {{{recon(møgusqim qyqi ij)}}}
| / | | <l> | | |
| møgusq | im | qy | qi | ij |
| village | towards | 1 | two/DU | go |
We both are going to the village
- {{{recon(møgusqim qynø ij)}}}
| / | | <l> | | |
| møgusq | im | qy | nø | ij |
| village | towards | 1 | 3/TRI/PAUC | go |
We three are going to the village
- {{{recon(møgusqim ñyqy ij)}}}
| / | | | <l> | |
| møgusq | im | ñy | qy | ij |
| village | towards | six/PL | 1 | go |
We are going to the village
It doesnt appear either that there was any morphology associated to
their grammatical case. All of its daughter languages have at least a
distinction between nominative, accusative, and genitive pronouns, but
it appears they all evolved after the Proto-Ñyqy breakup, with no
relation between the main daughter language families. The best example
is the striking difference between the Andelian and the Mojhal
families despite the fact they both come from Proto-Mojhal-Andelian
which is the earliest known language to split off from Proto-Ñyqy, as
well as Proto-Tiltinian and Old Pritian which again have no
similarities regarding their pronoun declensions. The only common
roots found are these three pronouns described in [[table:pronouns]].
Personal pronouns are free pronouns which do not need to be bound to
other elements in a sentence.
1. {{{recon(qibú qy qe)}}}
| qi | bú | qy | qe |
| DU | 2 | 1sg | see |
I see them both
2. {{{recon(qyim ñocm qe)}}}? {{{recon(ee qy)}}}
| qy | im | ñocm | qe |
| 1sg | DAT | someone | see |
| ee | qy |
| yes | 1sg |
Does anyone see me? Yes, me.
**** Demonstrative Pronouns
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Pronouns-and-Anaphoric-Clitics-Demonstrative-Pronouns-2qt4r0u058j0
**** Possessive Pronouns
Four levels of demonstratives seems to have existed in Proto-Ñyqy:
- {{{recon(bœce)}}} :: near the speaker
- {{{recon(pue)}}} :: near the interlocutor
- {{{recon(yqe)}}} and {{{recon(jœe)}}} :: distant from the speakers
It is interesting to see here a common pattern among languages which
is demonstratives pronouns coming from words meaning “here” or
“there”. In that case, these pronouns are derived from {{{recon(bœc)}}},
{{{recon(pu)}}}, {{{recon(yq)}}}, and {{{recon(jœ)}}}.
We are not sure about the difference between {{{recon(yq)}}} and {{{recon(jœ)}}}.
It is theorized they had differences in distance between the element
described by the pronoun and the speakers, maybe one describing
something that could be seen and the other not. In any case, only one
of the two survived in each language family so we cannot compare their
use in documented languages.
**** Possessive Pronouns :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Pronouns-and-Anaphoric-Clitics-Possessive-Pronouns-2pu4r0u058j0
*** Verbs
*** Verbs :noexport:
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@ -970,7 +1069,7 @@ interacted exactly is yet unsure. The
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*** Modifiers
*** Modifiers :noexport:
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@ -999,7 +1098,7 @@ interacted exactly is yet unsure. The
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*** Adverbs
*** Adverbs :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Adverbs-6lxelau058j0
@ -1012,11 +1111,11 @@ interacted exactly is yet unsure. The
# morphemes common to the type, etc.
# - Are any of these classes of adverbs related to older
# complement-taking (matrix) verbs?
*** Adpositions
*** Adpositions :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Adpositions-isib3bu058j0
*** Grammatical Particules
*** Grammatical Particules :noexport:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-World-Classes-Grammatical-Particules-q0kb3bu058j0