[Eittlandic, en] Add vocabulary, rework phonology, new info

Add new vocabulary in the dictionary
Dictionary has now two columns in LaTeX export

Replace phoneme /a/ with /ɑ/
Rework the examples given to illustrate the sound changes of
Eittlandic
Add vowel and consonants inventory
Add notes on regional dialects and accents

Additional information on Standard Eittlandic
master
Lucien Cartier-Tilet 12 months ago
parent 3d053fe403
commit 33728a9658
Signed by: phundrak
GPG Key ID: BD7789E705CB8DCA

@ -11,6 +11,9 @@
#+latex_header: \usepackage{allrunes}
#+macro: rune (eval (conlanging-to-org-runes $1 'eittlandic))
#+latex_header: \linespread{1.15}
#+latex_header: \usepackage{multicol}
#+latex_header: \setlength{\columnsep}{2cm}
#+latex_header: \setlength{\columnseprule}{1pt}
#+latex_header: \usepackage{glossaries}
#+latex_header: \makeglossaries
#+latex: \printglossaries
@ -20,7 +23,6 @@
:CUSTOM_ID: Introduction-Foreword-d22hjv20e5j0
:UNNUMBERED: t
:END:
** On This Document
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Foreword-On-This-Document-drs3x130rbj0
@ -70,11 +72,23 @@ for some stuff written here is “bullshit”.
This is a work of fiction. Any resemblance to persons living or dead,
to any real event, or any real people is purely coincidental.
** List of abbreviations
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Foreword-List-of-abbreviations-0h6jg050rbj0
:END:
- adj :: adjective
- adv :: adverb
- f :: feminine noun
- m :: masculine noun
- n :: neutral noun
- prep :: preposition
- v :: verb
* Eittland
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Eittland-iz98ngl0jaj0
:END:
Eittland (Eittlandic: Eittland {{{rune(eittland)}}} {{{phon(aɪtlãd)}}}) is part of
Eittland (Eittlandic: Eittland {{{rune(eittland)}}} {{{phon(ɑɪtlɑ̃d)}}}) is part of
the family of Nordic countries, with a population of 31.5 millions as
per the 2019 national census. It has a superficy of 121 km^{2}, making it
the second largest island in Europe after Great Britain. Its capital
@ -157,18 +171,18 @@ set style histogram rowstacked
set style fill solid border -1
set boxwidth 1
plot data u 2:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Norse Faith', \
data u 3:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Atheism', \
data u 4:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Church of Eittland', \
data u 5:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Christianity', \
data u 6:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Buddhism', \
data u 7:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 lw 3 title 'Other'
plot data u 2:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Norse Faith', \
data u 3:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Atheism', \
data u 4:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Church of Eittland', \
data u 5:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Christianity', \
data u 6:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Buddhism', \
data u 7:xticlabels(1) axis x1y1 title 'Other'
#+end_src
#+name: chart:religions
#+caption: Religious Evolution of Eittland Since 1900
#+attr_html: :loading lazy
#+RESULTS[3b10b0ef95c6a0d04471ef81330c2b0c065c9344]:
#+RESULTS[706a2c4928c3c4c8979c0ce62acab59f9eb1bebf]:
[[file:img/eittland/religions.png]]
#+attr_html: :loading lazy
@ -189,6 +203,37 @@ repartition of the different eittlandic cultures is shown in the map
#+attr_latex: :float sideways
[[file:./img/eittland/map-cultural.png]]
Standard Eittlandic is a relatively young language, created in the
1960s by the government in order to create a standard dialect to
facilitate communications between Eittlanders and make learning the
language easier. Standard Eittlandic is now enforced as the /de facto/
legal language of the High Kingdom of Eittland, used by its
government, schools, and universities, but the local dialects are
still widely spoken privately and in business which remains regional.
They still have a strong presence in popular media and are still
spoken by younger generations, but a decline has been registered since
the 90s among young people living in cities, speaking more and more in
Standard Eittlandic instead. Dialects are also rarely used on the
internet outside of private conversation. An estimate of 17% of the
Eittlandic population younger than 25 in 2017 do not speak any
dialectal Eittlandic outside of Standard Eittlandic, although only 2%
of them do not understand their familys dialectal Eittlandic.
Standard Eittlandic also became the default dialect for Eittlandic
communities living outside of Eittland --- in these communities the
inability of speaking other dialects rise to 61% while the ability to
understand them rises to 25% among Eittlanders younger than 25 in 2018
and who still have Eittlandic as their mother tongue.
It is estimated only 0.05% of people living in Eittland do not speak
any Eittlandic dialect, all of them being immigrants or children of
immigrants. It is therefore safe to say Eittlandic is still going
strong and does not face any risk of disappearing anytime soon,
although we might be at the start of the decline of the historical
dialects of Eittland in favor of Standard Eittlandic.
In this document, we will mostly address Standard Eittlandic, although
some dialectal variation will be mentioned.
** Name of the Country
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Eittland-Name-of-the-Country-hun23je06bj0
@ -516,7 +561,7 @@ mainly due to the original phoneme {{{phon(hʷ)}}} which could be inherited
from Proto-Norse instead.
+ Example :: Early Old Norse or Late Proto-Norse /hvat/ (what)
{{{phon(hʷat)}}} > Eittlandic /hvat/ (what) {{{phon(ʍat)}}}
{{{phon(hʷɑt)}}} > Eittlandic /hvat/ (what) {{{phon(ʍɑt)}}}
**** C / #h_ > C[-voice]
:PROPERTIES:
@ -529,12 +574,12 @@ When preceded by a {{{phon(h)}}}, word-initial consonants such as <l>, <r>,
+ Example ::
- Early Old Norse /hlóð/ (/hearth/) {{{phon(hloːð)}}} > Old Eittlandic /hlóð/
{{{phon(l̥oːð)}}}
- Early Old-Norse /hneisa/ (/shame, disgrace/) {{{phon(hneisa)}}} > Early Old
Eittlandic {{{phon(n̥eisa)}}}
- Early Old-Norse /hneisa/ (/shame, disgrace/) {{{phon(hneisɑ)}}} > Early Old
Eittlandic {{{phon(n̥eisɑ)}}}
- Early Old Norse /hrifs/ (/robbery/) {{{phon(hrifs)}}} > Old Norse {{{phon(r̥ifs)}}}
- Early Old Norse /hjól/ (wheel) {{{phon(hjoːl)}}} > Old Eittlandic {{{phon(çoːl)}}}
**** g / {#,V}_V > ɣ
**** g / {#,V}_{V,#} > ɣ
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-g-V-V-ɣ-9mlkdpi08bj0
:END:
@ -554,7 +599,7 @@ into a {{{phon(ə)}}}, but they eventually disappeared before long vowels got
affected by the first part of the rule. However, it did not apply to
final vowels following a <j>.
+ Example :: Old Norse /heilsa/ (/health/) {{{phon(heilsa)}}} > Late Old
+ Example :: Old Norse /heilsa/ (/health/) {{{phon(heilsɑ)}}} > Late Old
Eittlandic /heils/ {{{phon(heils)}}}.
Reflecting this change, the last vowel got lost in the Eittlandic
@ -568,7 +613,7 @@ a good deal of people that kept them well until the [[#Great-Vowel-Shift-7spk7j7
While the final short vowel of words did not disappear when preceded
by a <j>, they still weakened to a schwa.
+ Example :: Old Norse /sitja/ (/to sit/) {{{phon(sitja)}}} > Old Eittlandic
+ Example :: Old Norse /sitja/ (/to sit/) {{{phon(sitjɑ)}}} > Old Eittlandic
{{{phon(sitjə)}}}
**** Vː / _# > ə
@ -595,8 +640,8 @@ when beginning or preceding a vowel transformed it from {{{phon(g)}}} in
Proto-Norse to {{{phon(ɣ)}}} in Old Eittlandic to {{{phon(j)}}} in Early Modern
Eittlandic.
+ Example :: Old Norse /gauð/ (a barking) {{{phon(gauð)}}} > Early Middle
Eittlandic /gauð/ (a barking, a quarrel) {{{phon(jauð)}}}.
+ Example :: Old Norse /gauð/ (a barking) {{{phon(gɑuð)}}} > Early Middle
Eittlandic /gauð/ (a barking, a quarrel) {{{phon(jɑuð)}}}.
This is the first rule of the gj-shift along with the three next
rules, marking the passage from Old Eittlandic to Middle Eittlandic.
@ -608,8 +653,8 @@ rules, marking the passage from Old Eittlandic to Middle Eittlandic.
The exception to the above rule is the <g> remains a hard {{{phon(g)}}} when
followed by an <l> in which case {{{phon(gl)}}} becomes {{{phon(gʲ)}}}.
+ Example :: Old Norse /óglaðr/ (sad, moody) {{{phon(oːɡlaðr̩)}}} > Early
Middle Eittlandic /óglaðr/ (very sad, miserable) {{{phon(oːɡʲaðr̩)}}}
+ Example :: Old Norse /óglaðr/ (sad, moody) {{{phon(oːɡlɑðr̩)}}} > Early
Middle Eittlandic /óglaðr/ (very sad, miserable) {{{phon(oːɡʲɑðr̩)}}}
**** d g n s t / _j > C[+palat]
:PROPERTIES:
@ -637,16 +682,16 @@ described in
§[[#Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-C-h-voice-o4r8mvg08bj0]].
+ Example ::
- Early Old Norse /djúpligr/ (/deep, deeply/) {{{phon(djuːpliɡ)}}} > Middle
Eittlandic /djúpligr/ (/deep, profound/) {{{phon(dʒuːpliɡ)}}}
- Early Old Norse /djúp/ (/deep/) {{{phon(djuːp)}}} > Middle Eittlandic /djúp/
(/deep, profound/) {{{phon(dʒuːp)}}}
- Early Old Norse /gjøf/ (/gift/) {{{phon(gjøf)}}} > Early Middle Eittlandic
{{{phon(jøf)}}}
- Early Old Norse /snjór/ (/snow/) {{{phon(snjoːr)}}} > Middle Eittlandic
{{{phon(sɲoːr)}}}
- Early Old Norse /hnjósa/ (/to sneeze/) {{{phon(hnjoːsa)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ɲ̥oːs)}}}
- Early Old Norse /sjá/ (/to see/) {{{phon(sjaː)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃaː)}}}
- Early Old Norse /hnjósa/ (/to sneeze/) {{{phon(hnjoːsɑ)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ɲ̥oːs)}}}
- Early Old Norse /sjá/ (/to see/) {{{phon(sjɑː)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃɑː)}}}
- Early Old Norse /skilja/ (/to understand, to distinguish/)
{{{phon(skilja)}}} > Early Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃkiljə)}}}
{{{phon(skiljɑ)}}} > Early Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃkiljə)}}}
- Old Eittlandic /sitja/ (/to sit/) {{{phon(sitjə)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(sitʃə)}}}
**** u / V_ > ʊ
@ -655,19 +700,21 @@ described in
:END:
When following another vowel, {{{phon(u)}}} becomes an {{{phon(ʊ)}}}.
+ Example :: Old Norse /kaup/ (/bargain/) {{{phon(kaup)}}} > Early Middle
Eittlandic {{{phon(kaʊp)}}}
+ Example :: Old Norse /kaup/ (/bargain/) {{{phon(kɑup)}}} > Early Middle
Eittlandic {{{phon(kɑʊp)}}}
**** {s,z} / _C[+plos] > ʃ
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-s-z-C-plos-ʃ-ʒ-i4p0n0b0uaj0
:END:
If {{{phon(s)}}} or {{{phon(z)}}} precede a plosive consonant, they become
palatalized into a {{{phon(ʃ)}}} --- the distinction between <s> and <z> is lost.
palatalized into a {{{phon(ʃ)}}} --- the distinction between <s> and <z> is
lost.
+ Example ::
- Old Norse /fisk/ (/fish/) {{{phon(fisk)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(fiʃk)}}}
- Early Old Norse /vizka/ (/wisdom/) {{{phon(vizka)}}} > Middle Eittlandic /visk/ {{{phon(viʃk)}}}
- Old Norse /fiskr/ (/fish/) {{{phon(fiskr̩)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(fiʃkr̩)}}}
- Early Old Norse /vizka/ (/wisdom/) {{{phon(βizkɑ)}}} > Middle Eittlandic
/viska/ {{{phon(βiʃk)}}}
Note that in the Modern Eittlandic orthography, the <z> is replaced
with an <s>.
@ -691,7 +738,7 @@ following <j>.
+ Example :: Early Middle Eittlandic /skilja/ (to understand, to
distinguish) {{{phon(ʃkiljə)}}} > Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃkiʎə)}}}
**** ə[-long] / C[+voice]_# > ∅
**** ə[-long] / C_# > ∅
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-ə-C-voice-ysvblnk08bj0
:END:
@ -706,14 +753,14 @@ to any former short vowel following a <j> in word-final position.
+ Example :: Middle Eittlandic (to understand, to distinguish)
{{{phon(ʃkiʎə)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃkiʎ)}}}
**** aʊ > oː
**** ɑʊ > oː
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-aʊ-oː-4w88tmg08bj0
:END:
Sometime in the 15th century, any occurence of <au>, pronounced by
then {{{phon(aʊ)}}}, began shifting to {{{phon(oː)}}}.
then {{{phon(ɑʊ)}}}, began shifting to {{{phon(oː)}}}.
+ Example :: Early Middle Eittlandic /kaup/ (/bargain/) {{{phon(/kaʊp/)}}} > Late
+ Example :: Early Middle Eittlandic /kaup/ (/bargain/) {{{phon(/kɑʊp/)}}} > Late
Middle Eittlandic /kaup/ (/commerce/) {{{koːp}}}
**** C[+long +plos -voice] > C[+fric] ! / _C > C[+long +plos] > C[-long]
@ -725,13 +772,14 @@ consonant becomes a short affricate while other long plosives simply
become shorter.
+ Example ::
- Old Norse /Edda/ (the book written by Snorri Sturuson) {{{phon(edːa)}}} > Late Eittlandic {{{phon(eda)}}}
- Old Norse /Eittland/ {{{phon(eitːland)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(eitland)}}}
- Old Norse /uppá/ (/upon/) {{{phon(upːaː)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(upɸə)}}}
- Old Norse /edda/ (great grandmother) {{{phon(edːɑ)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic
/edda/ (great grandmother, femalle ancestor) {{{phon(edɑ)}}}
- Old Norse /Eittland/ {{{phon(eitːlɑnd)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(eitlɑnd)}}}
- Old Norse /uppá/ (/upon/) {{{phon(upːɑː)}}} > Late Middle Eittlandic {{{phon(upɸə)}}}
**** r > ʁ (Eastern Eittlandic)
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-r-ʁ-Eastern-Eittlandic-b20i1pm0bbj0
:CUSTOM_ID: Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-r-ʁ-Eastern-Eittlandic-b20i1pm0bbj0
:END:
From the beginning of the 16th century, the Eastern Eittlandic {{{phon(r)}}}
began morphing into an {{{phon(ʁ)}}} in all contexts except in word-final
@ -740,10 +788,10 @@ Eastern region of Eittland and it can be even heard in some dialects
of Southern Eittlandic.
+ Example ::
- Old Norse /dratta/ (/to trail/ or /walk like a cow/) {{{phon(dratʃ)}}} > Eastern Modern
Eittlandic /dratt/ (/act mindlessly/) {{{phon(dʁatʃ)}}}
- Old Norse /dratta/ (/to trail/ or /walk like a cow/) {{{phon(drɑtʃ)}}} > Eastern Modern
Eittlandic /dratt/ (/act mindlessly/) {{{phon(dʁɑtʃ)}}}
- Early Old Norse /fjárdráttr/ (/(unfairly) making money/)
{{{phon(fjaːdraːtːr̩)}}} > Eastern Modern Eittlandic /fjárdráttr/ (/to scam/)
{{{phon(fjɑːdrɑːtːr̩)}}} > Eastern Modern Eittlandic /fjárdráttr/ (/to scam/)
{{{phon(fjɛʁdʁɛtr̩)}}}
**** Great Vowel Shift
@ -762,7 +810,7 @@ Hence, the vowels evolved as shown in table [[vow:eittland:evolution]].
#+caption: Evolution of Old Norse long vowels to Eittlandic short vowels
| Orthography | Old Eittlandic vowel | Modern Eittlandic Vowel |
|-------------+----------------------+-------------------------|
| á | {{{phon(aː)}}} | {{{phon(ɛ)}}} |
| á | {{{phon(ɑː)}}} | {{{phon(ɛ)}}} |
| é | {{{phon(eː)}}} | {{{phon(ɛ)}}} |
| í | {{{phon(iː)}}} | {{{phon(e)}}} |
| ó | {{{phon(oː)}}} | {{{phon(ɔ)}}} |
@ -775,28 +823,28 @@ Modern Eittlandic vowels. For instance, Eittlanders will read <e> and
<í> both as an {{{phon(e)}}}.
+ Examples ::
- Middle Eittlandic /sjá/ (/to see/) {{{phon(ʃaː)}}} > Modern Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃɛ)}}}
- Middle Eittlandic /sjá/ (/to see/) {{{phon(ʃɑː)}}} > Modern Eittlandic {{{phon(ʃɛ)}}}
- Old Norse /fé/ (/cattle/) {{{phon(feː)}}} > Modern Eittlandic /fé/ (wealth) {{{phon(fɛ)}}}
- Late Proto-Norse /hví/ (/why/) {{{phon(hʷiː)}}} > Modern Eittlandic {{{phon(ʍe)}}}
- Old Norse /bók/ (/beech/, /book/) {{{phon(boːk)}}} > Modern Eittlandic (/book/)
{{{phon(bɔk)}}}
- Early Old Norse /œgir/ (/frightener/, /terrifier/) {{{phon(øːɡir)}}} > Modern
Eittlandic /œgir/ (/barbarian/, /pirate/) {{{phon(œjir)}}}
Eittlandic /Œgir/ (a kind of mythical beast) {{{phon(œjir)}}}
- Middle Eittlandic /úlv/ (/wolf/) {{{phon(uːlv)}}} > Modern Eittlandic {{{phon(olv)}}}
Diphthongs also evolved following these rules:
- {{{phon(ei)}}} > {{{phon(ɑɪ)}}}
- {{{phon(ou)}}} > {{{phon(ɑʊ)}}}
- {{{phon(ou)}}} > {{{phon(ɔʊ)}}}
- {{{phon(øy)}}} > {{{phon(œʏ)}}}
**** V / _N > Ṽ[-tense] ! V[+high] (Southern Eittlandic)
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-N-Ṽ-V-high-ulb1ey80uaj0
:CUSTOM_ID: Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-N-Ṽ-V-high-ulb1ey80uaj0
:END:
When preceding a nasal, any vowel that is not high as determined by
the figure [[tree:vowels]] gets nasalized when preceding a nasal consonant
and loses its tenseness if it has any. Hence, the pronunciation of the
<a> in /Eittland/ is {{{phon(ã)}}}. However, Old Norse /runa/ (rune) {{{phon(runa)}}}
<a> in /Eittland/ is {{{phon(ã)}}}. However, Old Norse /runa/ (rune) {{{phon(runɑ)}}}
becomes /run/ (letter, character, rune) {{{phon(run)}}} without any
nasalization.
@ -813,12 +861,12 @@ are not southerners.
:END:
When a {{{phon(t)}}} precedes another consonant, it becomes a glottal stop.
+ Example :: Early Modern Eittlandic /Eittland/ {{{phon(ɑɪtland)}}} > Modern
Eittlandic {{{phon(ɑɪʔland)}}}
+ Example :: Early Modern Eittlandic /Eittland/ {{{phon(ɑɪtlɑnd)}}} > Modern
Eittlandic {{{phon(ɑɪʔlɑnd)}}}
**** V^{U} > ə ! diphthongs (Western Eittlandic)
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-U-ə-diphthongs-fjh0pnr0uaj0
:CUSTOM_ID: Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-U-ə-diphthongs-fjh0pnr0uaj0
:END:
A recent evolution in Western Eittland is weakening any unstressed
vowel that is not a diphthong to a schwa. It is only documented in
@ -830,10 +878,34 @@ casual speech but almost never in formal speech.
- Standard Eittlandic /einlægr/ (/sincere/) {{{phon(ɑɪnlæɡr)}}} > Western
Casual Eittlandic {{{phon(ɑɪnləɡr)}}}
*** Simple Vowels
*** Vowel Inventory
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Vowels-vishtyt058j0
:END:
Modern Standard Eittlandic has a total of ten simple vowels and three
diphthongs. Unlike its ancestor language, Old Norse, it does not bear
any distinction in vowel length anymore since the great vowel shift
(see §[[#Great-Vowel-Shift-7spk7j70uaj0]]). The table [[tab:vow:ipa]] lists
the Eittlandic simple vowels while the table [[tab:vow:dipththongs]] lists
the Eittlandic diphthongs.
#+name: tab:vow:ipa
| / | < | |
| <r> | <c> | <c> |
| | front | back |
|-----------+-------+------|
| close | i y | u |
| close-mid | e ø | o |
| open-mid | ɛ œ | ɔ |
| open | | ɑ |
#+name: tab:vow:dipththongs
| diphthong | phonetics |
| <c> | <c> |
|-----------+-----------|
| ei | {{{phon(ɑɪ)}}} |
| au | {{{phon(ɔʊ)}}} |
| ey | {{{phon(œʏ)}}} |
#+name: vow-dot-gen
#+header: :var vowels=vowels-featural-list
@ -841,15 +913,15 @@ casual speech but almost never in formal speech.
(conlanging-list-to-graphviz vowels)
#+end_src
#+RESULTS[c52a8076dad068d0ed5c7b1b96a1461025993979]: vow-dot-gen
#+RESULTS[95f3d873f1a8b7fac926422e03feb73e9734ec2a]: vow-dot-gen
#+begin_src dot :file eittland/vowel-feature-tree.png
graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08yx7y65"[label="vowels"];"+high-0jau08yx7y6e"[label="+high"];"vowels-0jau08yx7y65"--"+high-0jau08yx7y6e";"+round-0jau08yx7y6h"[label="+round"];"+high-0jau08yx7y6e"--"+round-0jau08yx7y6h";"+front-0jau08yx7y6l"[label="+front"];"+round-0jau08yx7y6h"--"+front-0jau08yx7y6l";"/y/-0jau08yx7y6n"[label="/y/"];"+front-0jau08yx7y6l"--"/y/-0jau08yx7y6n";"-front-0jau08yx7y6t"[label="-front"];"+round-0jau08yx7y6h"--"-front-0jau08yx7y6t";"/u/-0jau08yx7y6w"[label="/u/"];"-front-0jau08yx7y6t"--"/u/-0jau08yx7y6w";"-round-0jau08yx7y75"[label="-round"];"+high-0jau08yx7y6e"--"-round-0jau08yx7y75";"/i/-0jau08yx7y78"[label="/i/"];"-round-0jau08yx7y75"--"/i/-0jau08yx7y78";"-high-0jau08yx7y7m"[label="-high"];"vowels-0jau08yx7y65"--"-high-0jau08yx7y7m";"+round-0jau08yx7y7q"[label="+round"];"-high-0jau08yx7y7m"--"+round-0jau08yx7y7q";"+tense-0jau08yx7y7t"[label="+tense"];"+round-0jau08yx7y7q"--"+tense-0jau08yx7y7t";"+front-0jau08yx7y7w"[label="+front"];"+tense-0jau08yx7y7t"--"+front-0jau08yx7y7w";"/ø/-0jau08yx7y80"[label="/ø/"];"+front-0jau08yx7y7w"--"/ø/-0jau08yx7y80";"-front-0jau08yx7y87"[label="-front"];"+tense-0jau08yx7y7t"--"-front-0jau08yx7y87";"/o/-0jau08yx7y8a"[label="/o/"];"-front-0jau08yx7y87"--"/o/-0jau08yx7y8a";"-tense-0jau08yx7y8k"[label="-tense"];"+round-0jau08yx7y7q"--"-tense-0jau08yx7y8k";"+low-0jau08yx7y8o"[label="+low"];"-tense-0jau08yx7y8k"--"+low-0jau08yx7y8o";"/œ/-0jau08yx7y8s"[label="/œ/"];"+low-0jau08yx7y8o"--"/œ/-0jau08yx7y8s";"-low-0jau08yx7y8y"[label="-low"];"-tense-0jau08yx7y8k"--"-low-0jau08yx7y8y";"/ɔ/-0jau08yx7y90"[label="/ɔ/"];"-low-0jau08yx7y8y"--"/ɔ/-0jau08yx7y90";"-round-0jau08yx7y9m"[label="-round"];"-high-0jau08yx7y7m"--"-round-0jau08yx7y9m";"+tense-0jau08yx7y9p"[label="+tense"];"-round-0jau08yx7y9m"--"+tense-0jau08yx7y9p";"+low-0jau08yx7y9s"[label="+low"];"+tense-0jau08yx7y9p"--"+low-0jau08yx7y9s";"/æ/-0jau08yx7y9v"[label="/æ/"];"+low-0jau08yx7y9s"--"/æ/-0jau08yx7y9v";"-low-0jau08yx7ya1"[label="-low"];"+tense-0jau08yx7y9p"--"-low-0jau08yx7ya1";"/e/-0jau08yx7yaa"[label="/e/"];"-low-0jau08yx7ya1"--"/e/-0jau08yx7yaa";"-tense-0jau08yx7yal"[label="-tense"];"-round-0jau08yx7y9m"--"-tense-0jau08yx7yal";"+low-0jau08yx7yao"[label="+low"];"-tense-0jau08yx7yal"--"+low-0jau08yx7yao";"/a/-0jau08yx7yar"[label="/a/"];"+low-0jau08yx7yao"--"/a/-0jau08yx7yar";"-low-0jau08yx7yaw"[label="-low"];"-tense-0jau08yx7yal"--"-low-0jau08yx7yaw";"/ɛ/-0jau08yx7yaz"[label="/ɛ/"];"-low-0jau08yx7yaw"--"/ɛ/-0jau08yx7yaz";}
graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jbs0vhl86d2"[label="vowels"];"+high-0jbs0vhl86db"[label="+high"];"vowels-0jbs0vhl86d2"--"+high-0jbs0vhl86db";"+round-0jbs0vhl86de"[label="+round"];"+high-0jbs0vhl86db"--"+round-0jbs0vhl86de";"+front-0jbs0vhl86dg"[label="+front"];"+round-0jbs0vhl86de"--"+front-0jbs0vhl86dg";"/y/-0jbs0vhl86dj"[label="/y/"];"+front-0jbs0vhl86dg"--"/y/-0jbs0vhl86dj";"-front-0jbs0vhl86do"[label="-front"];"+round-0jbs0vhl86de"--"-front-0jbs0vhl86do";"/u/-0jbs0vhl86dr"[label="/u/"];"-front-0jbs0vhl86do"--"/u/-0jbs0vhl86dr";"-round-0jbs0vhl86e3"[label="-round"];"+high-0jbs0vhl86db"--"-round-0jbs0vhl86e3";"/i/-0jbs0vhl86e6"[label="/i/"];"-round-0jbs0vhl86e3"--"/i/-0jbs0vhl86e6";"-high-0jbs0vhl86ek"[label="-high"];"vowels-0jbs0vhl86d2"--"-high-0jbs0vhl86ek";"+round-0jbs0vhl86en"[label="+round"];"-high-0jbs0vhl86ek"--"+round-0jbs0vhl86en";"+tense-0jbs0vhl86ep"[label="+tense"];"+round-0jbs0vhl86en"--"+tense-0jbs0vhl86ep";"+front-0jbs0vhl86es"[label="+front"];"+tense-0jbs0vhl86ep"--"+front-0jbs0vhl86es";"/ø/-0jbs0vhl86ev"[label="/ø/"];"+front-0jbs0vhl86es"--"/ø/-0jbs0vhl86ev";"-front-0jbs0vhl86f2"[label="-front"];"+tense-0jbs0vhl86ep"--"-front-0jbs0vhl86f2";"/o/-0jbs0vhl86f4"[label="/o/"];"-front-0jbs0vhl86f2"--"/o/-0jbs0vhl86f4";"-tense-0jbs0vhl86ff"[label="-tense"];"+round-0jbs0vhl86en"--"-tense-0jbs0vhl86ff";"+low-0jbs0vhl86fh"[label="+low"];"-tense-0jbs0vhl86ff"--"+low-0jbs0vhl86fh";"/œ/-0jbs0vhl86fk"[label="/œ/"];"+low-0jbs0vhl86fh"--"/œ/-0jbs0vhl86fk";"-low-0jbs0vhl86fp"[label="-low"];"-tense-0jbs0vhl86ff"--"-low-0jbs0vhl86fp";"/ɔ/-0jbs0vhl86fs"[label="/ɔ/"];"-low-0jbs0vhl86fp"--"/ɔ/-0jbs0vhl86fs";"-round-0jbs0vhl86gm"[label="-round"];"-high-0jbs0vhl86ek"--"-round-0jbs0vhl86gm";"+tense-0jbs0vhl86gp"[label="+tense"];"-round-0jbs0vhl86gm"--"+tense-0jbs0vhl86gp";"/e/-0jbs0vhl86gr"[label="/e/"];"+tense-0jbs0vhl86gp"--"/e/-0jbs0vhl86gr";"-tense-0jbs0vhl86gw"[label="-tense"];"-round-0jbs0vhl86gm"--"-tense-0jbs0vhl86gw";"+low-0jbs0vhl86gz"[label="+low"];"-tense-0jbs0vhl86gw"--"+low-0jbs0vhl86gz";"/ɑ/-0jbs0vhl86h1"[label="/ɑ/"];"+low-0jbs0vhl86gz"--"/ɑ/-0jbs0vhl86h1";"-low-0jbs0vhl86h6"[label="-low"];"-tense-0jbs0vhl86gw"--"-low-0jbs0vhl86h6";"/ɛ/-0jbs0vhl86h9"[label="/ɛ/"];"-low-0jbs0vhl86h6"--"/ɛ/-0jbs0vhl86h9";}
#+end_src
#+name: tree:vowels
#+attr_html: :alt Eittlandic Vowel Featural Tree :class gentree :loading lazy
#+caption: Eittlandic Vowels Featural Tree
#+RESULTS[93d18c3e267627e50cf901dcc820c34aaab89eab]:
#+RESULTS[7867f85cb842efcdbf63b57169c32fb8e2b6831c]:
[[file:img/eittland/vowel-feature-tree.png]]
**** Private Data :noexport:
@ -880,17 +952,14 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
- /ɔ/
- -round
- +tense
- +low
- /æ/
- -low
- /e/
- /e/
- -tense
- +low
- /a/
- /ɑ/
- -low
- /ɛ/
*** Consonants
*** Consonant Inventory
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Consonants-xethtyt058j0
:END:
@ -905,11 +974,45 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Pitch-and-Stress-br8ank61e8j0
:END:
*** Regional accents
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonetic-Inventory-and-Translitteration-Regional-accents-l8w7rux0sbj0
:END:
Eittlandic is a language in which three distinct main dialects exist
with their own accent. These three main dialects are Eastern
Eittlandic spoken in the majority Kingdom of Hylfjaltr, Western
Eittlandic spoken in the majority of the Kingdom of Ðeberget, and
Southern Eittlandic spoken on the southern parts of the island,
regardess of the legal kingdom (see the map shown in
§[[#Eittland-Culture-q6uf2gs0uaj0]]. Three main elements of their
respective accent were presented above in
§§[[#Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-r-ʁ-Eastern-Eittlandic-b20i1pm0bbj0]],
[[#Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-N-Ṽ-V-high-ulb1ey80uaj0]],
and
[[#Evolution-from-Early-Old-Norse-to-Eittlandic-V-U-ə-diphthongs-fjh0pnr0uaj0]].
Some regional variation can be also found in these dialects, although
less significant and less consistantly than the changes mentioned
above. As such, we can find in some rural parts of the Eastern
Eittlandic dialect area high vowels slightly more open than their
equivalent in Standard Eittlandic, as shown in table [[vow:accent:east]]
#+name: vow:accent:east
#+caption: Equivalence Between Eastern Eittlandic and Standard Eittlandic
| <c> | <c> |
| Rural Eastern Eittlandic | Standard Eittlandic |
|--------------------------+---------------------|
| {{{phon(i)}}} | {{{phon(ɪ)}}} |
| {{{phon(y)}}} | {{{phon(ʏ)}}} |
| {{{phon(u)}}} | {{{phon(ʊ)}}} |
On the other hand, Southern Eittlandic tends to front its {{{phon(ɑ)}}} into
{{{phon(a)}}} after nasal consonants and glides and into {{{phon(ɐ)}}} otherwise.
** Phonotactics
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Phonotactics-r2whtyt058j0
:END:
*** Syllable Structur
*** Syllable Structure
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Overview-Phonotactics-Syllable-Structure-hhx3zk40f8j0
:END:
@ -1236,11 +1339,11 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Verbal-Groups-Structure-hhu42yu058j0
:END:
** Intransitive Claus
** Intransitive Clauses :noexport:
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Intransitive-Clauses-x3k4i1v058j0
:END:
** Ditransitive Claus
** Ditransitive Clauses :noexport:
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Structural-Preview-Ditransitive-Clauses-2yl4i1v058j0
:END:
@ -1332,6 +1435,7 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-y2icocp0h5j0
:END:
#+latex: \begin{multicols*}{2}
** A
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-A-wtcczzm0jaj0
@ -1351,6 +1455,8 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-B-ae79d268
:END:
- bók :: f. {{{phon(bɔk)}}}
1. book
** C
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1361,6 +1467,11 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-D-h7lczzm0jaj0
:END:
- djúp :: adj. {{{phon(dʒop)}}}
1. deep
2. profound (figuratively)
- djúpligr :: adv. {{{phon(dʒopliɡr̩)}}}
1. deeply
** Đ
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1371,6 +1482,11 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-E-54360434
:END:
- edda :: f. {{{phon(ed)}}}
1. great grandmother
2. female ancestor, beyond the grandmother
- Eittland :: n. {{{phon(ɑɪʔlɑnd)}}}
1. (n) High Kingdom of Eittland, island of Eittland
** É
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1381,16 +1497,48 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-F-r4tczzm0jaj0
:END:
- fé :: n. {{{phon(fɛ)}}}
1. wealth
- fiskr :: m. {{{phon(fiʃkr̩)}}}
1. fish
** G
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-G-5a9af03c
:END:
- gauð :: n. {{{phon(jɔʊð)}}}
1. a barking
2. a quarrel
- gegn :: adv. {{{phon(jeɡn̩)}}}
1. against, opposing
- gjøf :: f. {{{phon(jøv)}}}
1. gift, present
** H
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-H-5qvczzm0jaj0
:END:
- heilsa :: f. {{{phon(hɑɪls)}}}
1. health
- hjól :: n. {{{phon(çɔl)}}}
1. wheel
- hlóð :: n. {{{phon(l̥ɔð)}}}
1. hearth
2. living room
- hneisa :: f. {{{phon(n̥ɑɪs)}}}
1. shame, disgrace
2. social isolation
- hneisingr :: n. {{{phon(n̥ɑɪsinɡr̩)}}}
1. hermit
2. (modern) shut-in, hikikomori
- hnjósa :: v. {{{phon(ɲ̥ɔs)}}}
1. to sneeze
- hrifs :: n. {{{phon(r̥ivs)}}}
1. assault, mugging
- hvat :: adv. {{{phon(ʍɑt)}}}
1. what
- hví :: adv. {{{phon(ʍe)}}}
1. why
** I
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1411,6 +1559,9 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-K-bl1dzzm0jaj0
:END:
- kaup :: n. {{{phon(kɔp)}}}
1. commerce
2. bargain, barter
** L
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1426,6 +1577,11 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-N-0ef6f2af
:END:
- noregsúlfr :: m. {{{phon(norejsolvr̩)}}}
1. wolf, litt. Norways wolf. Wolf do not naturally live in Eittland
and their only relatives introduced to the island were dogs and
wolf-dogs which inherited the simpler /úlfr/ term. Noun composed by
Old Norse /noregs/ (genitive of /Noregr/, /Norway/) and /úlfr/.
** O
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1436,11 +1592,8 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-Ó-y77dzzm0jaj0
:END:
** Ǫ
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-Ǫ-xv9dzzm0jaj0
:END:
- óglaðr :: adj. {{{phon(ɔɡʲɑðr̩)}}}
1. very sad, depressed, miserable
** Ø
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1451,6 +1604,9 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-Œ-0c780f53
:END:
- Œgir :: m. {{{phon(œjir)}}}
1. A mythical beast residing in the forests of the western
Eittlandic fjords.
** P
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1471,6 +1627,18 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-S-e9e187ae
:END:
- sitja :: v. {{{phon(sitʃ)}}}
1. to sit
2. to represent (politics)
- sjá :: v. {{{phon(ʃɛ)}}}
1. to see
2. to understand
- skilja :: v. {{{phon(ʃkiʎ)}}}
1. to differenciate
2. to segregate, to separate
3. to understand a difference
- snjór :: m. {{{phon(sɲɔr)}}}
1. snow
** T
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1486,16 +1654,25 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-U-fa109e34
:END:
- uppá :: prep. {{{phon(upɸə)}}}
1. upon
** Ú
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-Ú-c35e6434
:END:
- úlfr :: m. {{{phon(olvr̩)}}}
1. wolf-dog. See also /noregsúlfr/.
** V
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionary-V-urkdzzm0jaj0
:END:
- veisheit :: f. {{{phon(βɑɪshɑɪt)}}}
1. knowledge or wisdom. From German /Weisheit/. See also /vizka/
- viska :: f. {{{phon(βiʃk)}}}
1. practical knowledge or wisdom, acquired from experience
See /veisheit/ for a more general term for /wisdow/
** Y
:PROPERTIES:
@ -1512,6 +1689,9 @@ graph{graph[dpi=300,bgcolor="transparent"];node[shape=plaintext];"vowels-0jau08y
:CUSTOM_ID: Dictionnaire-Z-144a2853
:END:
#+latex: \end{multicols*}
* Private Data :noexport:
:PROPERTIES:
:CUSTOM_ID: Private-Data-q4hgd1d0uaj0

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@ -8,4 +8,5 @@
- [[file:archived/hjelp.org][Hjelp]]
- [[file:archived/matter.org][Mattér]]
- en
- [[file:en/eittlandic.org][Eittland]]
- [[file:en/proto-nyqy.org][The Proto-Ñyqy People]]

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